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Artigos em revistas ► internacionais com arbitragem


Referência Bibliográfica

ROUWET, D., MORA-AMADOR, R., RAMÍREZ, C., GONZÁLEZ, G., BALDONI, E., PECORAINO, G., INGUAGGIATO, S., CAPACCIONI, B., LUCCHI, F., TRANNE, C. A. (2021) - Response of a hydrothermal system to escalating phreatic unrest: the case of Turrialba and Irazú in Costa Rica (2007–2012). Earth Planets Space 73, 142 (2021). doi: 10.1186/s40623-021-01471-8.


​This study presents the first hydrogeochemical model of the hydrothermal systems of Turrialba and Irazú volcanoes in central Costa Rica, manifested as thermal springs, summit crater lakes, and fumarolic degassing at both volcanoes. Our period of observations (2007–2012) coincides with the pre- and early syn-phreatic eruption stages of Turrialba volcano that resumed volcanic unrest since 2004, after almost 140 years of quiescence. Peculiarly, the generally stable Irazú crater lake dropped its level during this reawakening of Turrialba. The isotopic composition of all the discharged fluids reveals their Caribbean meteoric origin. Four groups of thermal springs drain the northern flanks of Turrialba and Irazú volcanoes into two main rivers. Río Sucio (i.e. “dirty river”) is a major rock remover on the North flank of Irazú, mainly fed by the San Cayetano spring group. Instead, one group of thermal springs discharges towards the south of Irazú. All thermal spring waters are of SO4-type (i.e. steam-heated waters), none of the springs has, however, a common hydrothermal end-member. A water mass budget for thermal springs results in an estimated total output flux of 187 ± 37 L/s, with 100 ± 20 L/s accounted for by the San Cayetano springs. Thermal energy release is estimated at 110 ± 22 MW (83.9 ± 16.8 MW by San Cayetano), whereas the total rock mass removal rate by chemical leaching is ~ 3000 m3/year (~ 2400 m3/year by San Cayetano-Río Sucio). Despite Irazú being the currently less active volcano, it is a highly efficient rock remover, which, on the long term can have effects on the stability of the volcanic edifice with potentially hazardous consequences (e.g. flank collapse, landslides, phreatic eruptions). Moreover, the vapor output flux from the Turrialba fumaroles after the onset of phreatic eruptions on 5 January 2010 showed an increase of at least ~ 260 L/s above pre-eruptive background fumarolic vapor fluxes. This extra vapor loss implies that the drying of the summit hydrothermal system of Turrialba could tap deeper than previously thought, and could explain the coincidental disappearance of Irazú’s crater lake in April 2010.