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Instituto de Investigação
em Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos
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Referência Bibliográfica

QUEIROZ, G., GASPAR, J.L., GUEST, J.E., GOMES, A., ALMEIDA, M.H. (2015) - Eruptive history and evolution of Sete Cidades Volcano, São Miguel Island, Azores​. In: Gaspar, J.L., Guest, J.E., Duncan, A.M., Barriga, F.J.A.S., Chester, D.K. (eds.) Volcanic Geology of São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago), Geological Society of London Memoir, 44: 87-104, doi: 10.1144/M44.7.​


​Sete Cidades is an active central volcano on the western part of São Miguel. The geological record reveals that subaerial activity started more than 250 ka ago. Stratigraphic units defined for Sete Cidades deposits reflect major events in the history of the volcano and are organized into two main groups: the Inferior Group and the Superior Group. Caldera formation resulted from three major paroxysmal events that occurred at about 36, 29 and 16 ka ago. Analysis of the eruptive history of Sete Cidades shows that effusive or moderately explosive eruptions, of Hawaiian and/or Strombolian styles, were located on the slopes of the central volcano. Conversely, trachytic explosive activity is mostly centred inside the caldera involving, in a first stage, predominantly Plinian and sub-Plinian phenomena, changing about 5 ka ago to a dominant hydromagmatic style. Trachytic effusive eruptions are represented by domes and associated lava flows that crop out in the inner caldera walls and on the western slopes of the volcano. Offshore submarine activity is represented by the historic Surtseyan eruptions of 1638 and 1811. In the last 5 ka Sete Cidades was the most active central volcano in the Azores with 17 explosive eruptions predominantly with hydromagmatic character.